The Ultimate Site for All Things 3D/4K & 4K3D

“We offer the best prices for everything 3D.” Find out here.

“Looking for Professional 3D-Making Training?” Click here.


PAL is a type of interlaced video stream that can be found in use around the world. PAL is built up from 625 horizontal lines which play at a rate of 25 frames per second.

Panorama pictures
Panoramic pictures are images that are taken of the environment around you that are captured when you rotate in a circular motion.

This is the apparent change in the position of an object when it is viewed from various points. In stereo it is often used to describe the tiny relative displacements that occur between homologues and it is more commonly and correctly defined as deviation.

Parallax Barrier
This is a device to allow an LCD  to view stereoscopic images without the need for 3D glasses. Layered in front of the normal LCD, it consists of a layer of material with a series of precision slits, allowing each eye to see a different set of pixels, thus creating a sense of depth using parallax. One disadvantage of the technology is that the viewer must be positioned in a very narrow “sweet” spot to experience the 3D effect. This technology is being used in the new Ninetendo DS and on many mobile phone 3D screens that are currently in development.

Parallax budget
Parallax budget is a range of parallax values, ranging from maximum negative up to maximum positive, within a comfortable range of viewing.

Parallax stereogram

Parallax stereogram is a form of autostereogram. It describes a technique with which various thin vertical strips for each eyes views are printed in a composite form, and then they are overlaid with a lenticular sheet of cylindrical lenses. This then presents each view to the corresponding eye for viewing stereoscopically.

Parallel viewing method
This term is used to describe the viewing of a stereo image with which the left view of a stereo image is situated on the left, and the right view is found on the right. This is the usual way that stereo cards are created, unlike the technique of cross-eyed viewing.

Parallel free-vision fusion Parallel-viewing
The parallel method
This is a free viewing technique within which the lines of sight of both eyes aim and meet at a specific point which is beyond the 3D image. It works when the eyes move outwards towards the parallel lines of sight. This works well with small images, however it is kind of limited on a computer screen.

Passive polarized 3D glasses
These are 3D spectacles made with polarizing filters. They are used alongside a view screen that preserves the polarized light.

Passive stereo
This is a technique where 3D stereoscopic imagery is achieved due to polarizing the left and right images differently, and they can be viewed using very low-cost polarizing spectacles.

Photo bubble
Photo sphere
Photo cube

These terms relate to the forming of a panorama picture which is usually made up of images taken with a fisheye lens. The images are then ‘stitched’ together in order to create a sphere or cube, with which the viewer can see all around, up, down, left and right.

Photogrammetry is a professional discipline that uses stereography as a way of map-making and scientific measuring. It is the science, art and technology of gaining reliable information about objects and the environment through measuring, recording, and interpreting photographic patterns and images of radiant electromagnetic energy and other phenomenon’s.

Planar image
Two dimensional

These terms describe an image that is contained within a two-dimensional space. However it does not necessarily appear to be flat. It could have all the depth cues apart from stereopsis.

This is a projected stereoscopic image that is made up from two planar images.

Polarization of light
The polarization of light is the dividing of beams of light into separate vectors or planes by the means of polarizing filters which were first practically applied by Edwin Land from the Polaroid Company in the 1930s. If two vectors are crossed at right angles then the vision or light rays will be obscured.

Progression (in film transport)
This is the method or amount by which the film is advanced between exposures within a purpose-built stereo camera. The Verascope progression will move by one and three frames alternately where as the Colardeau progression moves by two.

Pseudo stereo
The effect that will be produced when the left and right view image are reversed. This creates a conflict between perspective image and depth.


This is the presentation of 3D images in a inverse order, so that the object furthest away will be seen as the closest and vice-versa. It is more correctly known and referred to as ‘inversion’. The effect is achieved either accidentally or deliberately when the right and lefts images are transposed for viewing.

Pulfrich effect
The Pulfrich effect is named so after Carl Pulfrich who adequately described the phenomenon in 1922 in relation to a moving object, which happened to be a laterally swinging pendulum. The Pulfrich effect is a term now commonly used to refer to an illusory stereoscopic effect which occurs when 2D images moving laterally on a single plane are viewed at slightly different time intervals by each eye. The delay between the eyes is achieved by reducing the vision in just one of them. This apparent displacement that results from this is interpreted by the brain as a change in the distance of the image. A scene is then produced which gives a depth effect, the depth being proportionate to the rate of movement of the subject, not to the subjects distance.

Pulfrich stereo
This refers to stereo video that is taken by rolling a camera sideways at a right angle to a subject. When viewed, the viewer will need to wear glasses with one eye unobstructed and the other through a darker lens. This tricks the brain into processing frames of the video, and this results in a moving stereo image in color.

1 comment on “P

  1. I was very happy to discover this page. I want to to thank you for your time just for this wonderful read!! I definitely savored every bit of it and i also have you book-marked to look at new stuff on your site.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *



You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>